# Geosciences Research

### Truncation of the Earth Impulse Responses Relating Geoelectric Fields and Geomagnetic Field Variations

Download PDF (510.7 KB) PP. 72 - 92 Pub. Date: May 15, 2017

### Author(s)

**Risto J. Pirjola**^{*}

Geomagnetic Laboratory, Earth Science Sector, Natural Resources Canada, 2617 Anderson Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E7, Canada**David H. Boteler**

Finnish Meteorological Institute, P. O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland

### Abstract

### Keywords

### References

[1] P. R. Gattens, “Investigation of transformer overheating due to solar magnetic disturbances,” IEEE Power Engineering Review, October 1989, pp. 19-20, 1989.

[2] C. T. Gaunt and G. Coetzee, “Transformer failures in regions incorrectly considered to have low GIC-risk,” PowerTech’07 Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1-5 July 2007, Paper n:o 445 at the 6 pp., 2007.

[3] J. G. Kappenman, “Geomagnetic disturbances and impacts upon power system operation,” In: The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, L.L., Grigsby (Ed.), 2nd Edn., Chapter 16, pp. 16-1 – 16-22, CRC Press/IEEE Press, 2007.

[4] T. S. Molinski, “Why utilities respect geomagnetically induced currents,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol. 64, no. 16, pp. 1765-1778, 2002.

[5] B. Bozoki, S. R. Chano, W. E. Feero, G. Fenner, C. F. Henville, J. W. Ingleson, S. Mazumdar, P. G. McLaren, K. K. Mustaphi, F. M. Phillips, and G. D. Rockefeller, “The effects of GIC on protective relaying,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 725-739, doi: 10.1109/61.489329, 1996.

[6] T. Maguire and D. Woodford, “Geomagnetic induced current effect on SVC operation,” CEA Report, 316 T 745, 1990.

[7] NERC GMDTF 2012 Special Reliability Assessment Interim Report, “Effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the Bulk Power System,” North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC), 150 pp., 2012.

[8] R. Pirjola, “Review on the calculation of surface electric and magnetic fields and of geomagnetically induced currents in ground-based technological systems,” Surveys in Geophysics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 71-90, 2002.

[9] D. Boteler, “On Choosing Fourier Transforms for Practical Geoscience Applications,” International Journal of Geosciences, vol. 3, pp. 952-959, doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.325096, 2012.

[10] D. H. Boteler, “Geomagnetically induced currents: Present knowledge and future research,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 50-58, 1994.

[11] L. Trichtchenko and D. H. Boteler, “Modelling of geomagnetic induction in pipelines,” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1063-1072, doi: 10.5194/angeo-20-1063-2002, 2002.

[12] D. H. Boteler and R. J. Pirjola, “The complex-image method for calculating the magnetic and electric fields produced at the surface of the Earth by the auroral electrojet,” Geophysical Journal International, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 31-40, 1998.

[13] R. Pirjola, “Electromagnetic induction in the earth by a plane wave or by fields of line currents harmonic in time and space,” Geophysica, vol. 18, nos. 1-2, pp. 1-161, 1982.

[14] R. Pirjola, “Estimation of the electric field on the Earth’s surface during a geomagnetic variation,” Geophysica, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 89-103, 1984.